Robotic metamorphosis by origami exoskeletons

Changing the inherent physical capabilities of robots by metamorphosis has been a long-standing goal of engineers. However, this task is challenging because of physical constraints in the robot body, each component of which has a defined functionality. To date, self-reconfiguring robots have limitations in their on-site extensibility because of the large scale of today’s unit modules and the complex administration of their coordination, which relies heavily on on-board electronic components. We present an approach to extending and changing the capabilities of a robot by enabling metamorphosis using self-folding origami “exoskeletons.” We show how a cubical magnet “robot” can be remotely moved using a controllable magnetic field and hierarchically develop different morphologies by interfacing with different origami exoskeletons. Activated by heat, each exoskeleton is self-folded from a rectangular sheet, extending the capabilities of the initial robot, such as enabling the manipulation of objects or locomotion on the ground, water, or air. Activated by water, the exoskeletons can be removed and are interchangeable. Thus, the system represents an end-to-end (re)cycle. We also present several robot and exoskeleton designs, devices, and experiments with robot metamorphosis using exoskeletons.

Source: Sciencemag.org – Science Robotics Latest Content

Control of molecular shuttles by designing electrical and mechanical properties of microtubules

Kinesin-driven microtubules have been focused on to serve as molecular transporters, called “molecular shuttles,” to replace micro/nanoscale molecular manipulations necessitated in micro total analysis systems. Although transport, concentration, and detection of target molecules have been demonstrated, controllability of the transport directions is still a major challenge. Toward broad applications of molecular shuttles by defining multiple moving directions for selective molecular transport, we integrated a bottom-up molecular design of microtubules and a top-down design of a microfluidic device. The surface charge density and stiffness of microtubules were controlled, allowing us to create three different types of microtubules, each with different gliding directions corresponding to their electrical and mechanical properties. The measured curvature of the gliding microtubules enabled us to optimize the size and design of the device for molecular sorting in a top-down approach. The integrated bottom-up and top-down design achieved separation of stiff microtubules from negatively charged, soft microtubules under an electric field. Our method guides multiple microtubules by integrating molecular control and microfluidic device design; it is not only limited to molecular sorters but is also applicable to various molecular shuttles with the high controllability in their movement directions.

Source: Sciencemag.org – Science Robotics Latest Content